2021-04-22  本文来源:  

Myanmar locates in the west of Indo-China Peninsula, between longitudes 92°20′ and 101°11′E and altitudes 9°58′ and 28°31′N. It south end reaches Victoria Point at 10°N, and the north boundary between Myanmar and China around 28°N. In the west Maungdaw borders with Bangladesh (around 92°E), while in the east lies the boundary river between Myanmar and Laos, i.e. Mekong River (around 101°E).

Myanmar covers a total area of 676,581 square kilometers, approximating the sum of land areas of Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, and occupying over 1/3 of the Indo-China Peninsula. Myanmar is the largest country of all 5 countries in Indo-China Peninsula, only secondary to Indonesia among the 11 ASEAN countries. It ranks 39 in land size among 195 countries around the world.

Myanmar is shaped like a diamond, long and narrow. It is about 2090 kilometers long from south to north, whilst its width varies from 80-90 km to 925 km. The narrowest part is the Tenasserim area, the narrow strip along the southern coast.

On January 4, 1948, Myanmar declared independence from the Commonwealth, and established Union of Burma with Capital in Rangoon. A new constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma was adopted in January 1974. In September 1988, leaders of Burmese military started a coup and came into power. On September 23, the country was renamed as Union of Myanmar. In November 2005, the military government that has seized office since 1988, announced to move the national capital to Pyinmana in the middle of Myanmar, officially naming the new capital Naypyidaw.

In 2012, the population of Myanmar totaled over 60.98 million with 135 ethnic groups. The ethnic groups with the largest population include Bamar, Karen, Shan, Kachin, Chin, Kayah, Mon, and Rakhine etc., among which Bamar comprised around 65% of the total population. All ethnic groups have their own languages, and Bamar, Kachin, Karen, Shan and Mon among other ethnic groups have their written languages. The religion for over 85% of the population is Theravāda Buddhism, followed by Islam, Christianity and tribal religions. The official language is Burmese. GDP per capita in 2012 was USD 906.

Myanmar is a traditional agricultural country with less developed industry. Although the national development plan targets at developing industry based on agriculture, the current progress is very slow and there is a long way for Myanmar to realize industrialization. The state of economic development determines the severity of pollution of Myanmar now.

Due to the fast growth in population and economic development, there is a growing trend in environmental pollution and ecological degradation with the adverse influence gradually being noticed. The current environmental issues faced by Myanmar include deforestation, water and soil erosion, air, water and soil pollution, as well as the spread of disease due to insufficient hygiene and water treatment facilities.

In general, environmental degradation in Myanmar remains at a relatively low level, but there are also issues like deforestation, water pollution and so forth. The deep-rooted cause for environmental issues in Myanmar lies in its underdevelopment and poverty, instead of industrial development. Nevertheless, population growth, urbanization and development of industries will impose growing pressure on the local ecosystem and environment. In addition, economic development for Myanmar in the current stage is realized by the exploitation of natural resources. Without affiliated environmental facilities, its economic development path is not beneficial to the environment in the long run.

Under growing environmental pressure, the central government and local governments of Myanmar formulated a series of environmental legislations and regulations, which, however, cannot accommodate the current needs for environmental protection. It is imperative to formulate special legislations based on the current needs on development and preservation, further improve the governance system for environmental protection, enact reasonable planning, clarify targets and goals, as well as take comprehensive measures to prevent and control pollution. In addition, it is necessary to revise the outdated laws, regulations and articles, and improve environmental technologies. Meanwhile, the government should enhance institutional construction and scientific research, cultivate talents, promote publicity, strengthen financial inputs and carry out international cooperation. Short boards in the areas above are the major problems for environmental protection in Myanmar.