2021-04-22  本文来源:  

The Philippines lies in the southeast of Asia. It is separated in the north from Taiwan, China by the Bashi Channel, and faces Indonesia across the Sulawesi Sea on the south and Malaysia across the Balabac Straits on the southwest. It is bounded by the South China Sea on the west and the Pacific on the east. It is located between 5° and 21° N latitude and 117° and 127° E longitude.

With a total area of 299,700 square kilometers, the Philippines has 7,107 islands, large and small, in total. These islands, like shining pearls, are dotted in the vast expanse of the western Pacific Ocean, making the Philippines the "Pearl of the Orient". Of these islands, eleven largest islands contain 96% of the country's total land area, such as Luzon, Mindanao and Samar. More than two thirds of the islands are hills, mountains and plateaus. The Philippines is also a volcanic country, boasting 52 volcanoes, among which 11 are active; earthquakes are common. The plains of the country are mostly narrow except for the central and southeastern parts of Luzon. With a total length of 18,533 km, the Philippine coastline is irregular, dotted with numerous magnificent harbors.

The Philippines is divided into three parts: Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao. These areas are divided into 17 regions, such as the National Capital Region, the Cordillera Administrative Region and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, which are further subdivided into 79 provinces and 117 component cities. Metro Manila is the capital city of the Philippines and is made up of 17 cities (districts), covering a total area of 636 square kilometers with an urban population of 11.86 million (as of May 2010). Cebu is the country's second largest city. It is located in the middle of the Visayas, with an urban population of 2.31 million. The total population of the Philippines is 100 million (as of July 2014). The Philippines is one of the countries with a high population growth rate in the world. And the population distribution is quite uneven. The population density in Manila is as high as 9317.4 inhabitants per square kilometer, while in some provinces in the northern part of Luzon the density is only a few dozen per square kilometer. The urban population accounts for 21% of the total population. More than 85% of the population are the Malays, including the Tagalogs, Ilonggos, Pampangans, Visayas and Bicols; other ethnic groups living in the Philippines include the Chinese, Arabians, Indians, Spanish and Americans, and their descendants; indigenous peoples account for a small portion. There are more than 70 languages in the Philippines. Filipino based on Tagalog is the national language, and English is the official language. About 84% of the people believe in Catholicism, 4.9% believe in Islam, while a few believe in independent and Protestant Protestantism. Most Chinese-Filipinos believe in Buddhism, while indigenous people believe in primitive religion.

Affected by tropical convective clouds all year round, the Philippines has a monsoon tropical rainforest climate, characterized by relatively high temperature, plenty of rainfall, oppressive humidity and risk of typhoon. The annual mean temperature is between 24 to 31 degrees Celsius, the annual precipitation is between 2000 to 3000 mm, and the average annual relative humidity is 78%. The dry season lasts from November to May, with less rainfall and higher temperature. The rainy seasons starts in June and lasts till October, with abundant rainfall and frequent typhoons.

There are more than 20 kinds of main mineral resources in the Philippines, such as copper, gold, silver, iron, chromium and nickel. Of the metallic reserves, copper accounted for 4.8 billion tons, nickel for 1.09 billion tons, and gold for 136 million tons. The Philippines is rich in geothermal resource, with an estimated amount of 2.09 billion barrels oil equivalent energy. The initial oil exploration in the northwestern part of Palawan shows that the area has 3.5 billion barrels of oil reserves. The forest encompasses about 15.85 million hectares, and the forest coverage rate is 53%. Precious wood such as ebony and rosewood can be found. The Philippines is also rich in aquatic resources and has more than 2,400 species of fish. The tuna resources are among the highest in the world. The agricultural population accounts for more than two thirds of the total population. The main crops are coconut, sugar cane, abaca, tobacco, banana, pineapple, mango, rice, corn and etc. More than one third of the rice fields lie in the central plain of Luzon. Food, mining, textiles, smelting, automotive assembly and chemistry are some of the major industries in the country. The Philippines is famous for its embroidery craft. It is the world's largest exporter of copra and coconut oil, and its exports of bananas, mangoes, wood, iron and chromium also account for a large share of the world market. The Philippines is an importer of grain, petroleum products, machines, textiles and metal products.